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  • 喀喇昆仑山公路资料

    日期:2003-08-09 | 分类:攻略 (Tips) | Tags:各国旅行攻略(Traveling-Tips) 克什米尔(Kashimir) 资讯(Information) 巴基斯坦(Pakistan)

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    世界17项代价最昂贵的建设工程喀喇昆仑山公路(Karakoram Highway)居第十六位(按完成年代排), 完成于1978年,死亡400人(居第四位)。

    帕米尔行迹


    巴托拉冰川的考察
    巴托拉冰川是世界有名的中、低纬度八大冰川之一,它位于喀喇昆仑山系的西北部,是一条北西西——南东东流向的树枝状纵谷冰川。长59.2公里,面积为285平方公里,雪线海拔4500-5300米,伸入洪札河谷中,终止于2540米的地方。
    联结中国和巴基斯坦的友好公路——喀喇昆仑山公路,通过巴托拉冰川末端。由于冰川的进退和冰融水道的变迁,经常影响公路的畅通。因此,中巴两国合作自1974——1975年及1979年共同对巴托拉冰川进行了考察。
    考察组根据考察所获得的资料绘制了巴托拉流域的地形图,在冰川上布设了18个冰川运动速度的横剖面;绘制了冰川下段年冰面流速等值线图。通过考察,对巴托拉冰川的变化趋势进行了预报。
    巴托拉流域面积有687平方公里,冰川总面积为332平方公里,巴托拉冰种面积为285平方公里。南侧有12条大小冰流汇入主冰川,北侧仅有4条冰流汇入。
    巴托拉冰川的粒雪线以上积累区面积为144平方公里,消融区面积为141平方公里。在海拔5,100米处,冰的厚度折算成囤积量相当于 l,030-1,250毫米水层,在 4,850米高处相当于 1,034毫米水层。由融水量可以推知,雪线以上年降水量为2,000毫米左右。
    巴托拉冰川平均厚度为309.9米,最大厚度为431.7米,总储冰量达9,134百万立方米。冰川末端年平均温度为9.3℃(多年平均为10℃)。裸露冰的消融期长达315天,消融的冰层有18.41米高。
    由考察资料可知,巴托拉冰川上游有比较充沛的降雪补给,又有比较优越的低温条件,因而形成了融水径流模数高、流量大、水位日变幅小、冲刷强烈等特点的常态活动冰川,年径流量达9.3亿立方米。巴托拉冰川的冰床是南低北高的不对称的U形谷,这种有利的地形孕育了这条世界上有名的冰川。
    考察组根据所获资料,冰川1200年来进退幅度不大,冰流速变化较和缓。自1966年左右开始的冰川前进,还将继续前进180-240米,以后转入衰退。那时冰川距公路尚有300米左右。因此可以判定,这次冰川前进不会产生对公路的危害。考察组提出的对喀喇昆仑公路巴托拉地段的修复建议,已为巴方所采纳。

    红旗拉甫

    自古以来,这里便是古丝绸之路南道的主要通道。该口岸位于喀什地区塔什库尔干塔吉克自治县境内,同巴基斯坦北部地区毗邻,是公路口岸。该口岸距喀什市420公里,距巴基斯坦吉尔吉特市256公里。由于气候原因,每年5月1日至11月30日对旅游者开放,节假日照常开放,12月1日至次年4月30日除必要的公务活动外,为关闭时间。交通运输部门已开辟了喀什市至苏斯特联运线路,全程520公里。
    红旗拉甫口岸为客货两用口岸,1978年喀喇昆仑山公路全线竣工后,该口岸已成为通向中亚、西亚和欧洲及地中海沿岸阿拉伯国家的“桥头堡”。目前是新疆的主要旅游口岸,1986年5月1日开始对第三国实行开放,现已有近百个国家和地区的旅客数10万人通过此口岸。
    新疆同巴基斯坦北部地区的边境贸易也经红旗拉甫口岸进出,主要进口巴基斯坦的土特产、药材、香烟、尼龙布、丝布、铜器等;我方出口的主要有日用百货、纺织品、建材、瓷器、水电设备、农业机械及水泥建材等。

    穿过世界罕见的喀喇昆仑公路--去中巴边境走一遭

    本报驻巴基斯坦特派记者 丁子
      
      有人说,在中国,不到长城非好汉,而在巴基斯坦,如果不走走中巴合作修建的喀喇昆仑公路,也不算“好汉”,因为只有走过了这条公路,才能领略沿途山川的壮美与险峻,更能让人了解中巴两国之间根深蒂固的传统友谊。不久前,记者与几位朋友一起乘车从伊斯兰堡出发,经过两天多的行程,走完了喀喇昆仑公路。
      中国援建友谊路
      喀喇昆仑公路是世界公路建设史上的一个奇迹。据巴资料记载,早在1959年,巴方就开始在北部山区筑路,试图把巴控克什米尔地区的吉尔吉特与巴其他地方联系起来。但由于地形险恶,直到1965年,也只是在崎岖的山路上开了条道,并未达到公路的标准。随后,中国决定援助巴基斯坦修建巴北部公路,由于这条路要穿过喀喇昆仑山,所以被命名为喀喇昆仑公路。从1966年到1978年,喀喇昆仑公路在中巴两国建设者的努力下全部完工,两国陆路从此联系起来。到1986年5月,这条公路正式“对外开放”。
      喀喇昆仑公路边上的纪念碑碑文,把这条公路称为世界八大奇观之一。公路最低处的海拔为700多米,最高处红其拉甫山口海拔约4800米。从公路的剖面图上看,过了北部城镇齐拉斯以后,公路在吉尔吉特、苏斯特等地一步一个“台阶”,每上一个“台阶”,海拔就升高1000米。统计表明,整条公路上共有主桥24座,小型桥梁70座,涵洞1700个,共用了8000吨炸药,8万吨水泥,运送土石3000万立方米,400多名建设者捐躯,314人重伤。
      中国朋友受欢迎
      喀喇昆仑公路的路况比我想象的要好。尽管是山路,但底盘低的轿车也完全可以开上红其拉甫山口。在小镇塔克特附近,立着一块公路纪念碑,用英语和乌尔都语记载着中巴两国共同修筑公路的时间,尤其引人注目的是上面标着距中国首都5425公里,这使我们立刻对喀喇昆仑公路有了亲近感。
      从塔克特向前,就进入了喀喇昆仑公路上的一段“危险区”。从地形上讲,这一地区道路崎岖,车基本上是在半山腰开凿出的道路上前行。很多地段一边是峭壁,另一边是河谷。峭壁上的岩石没有任何遮拦,这些地段大多是塌方或滑坡的多发地,在雨雪天气非常危险,路面上有很多不断修补的痕迹。
      除了自然因素外,还有人的因素。从塔克特到齐拉斯,很多地段都由当地的部落控制。据巴方记载,齐拉斯人历来对外界不太友善,当地人也一直有着不好惹的名声。巴基斯坦朋友曾告诉我,这段路沿途各地都严格遵循部落传统,城镇上很少看到外出的妇女。不过,齐拉斯人对中国人还是相当友好,我们车经过的地方,很多留着大胡子、裹着头的村民友好地向我们打招呼。去年底,为了抗议美国军事打击阿富汗,当地的一些部落武装曾设卡占据了喀喇昆仑公路一些路段。而当时,中国援阿物资的车队恰巧要经过这里。中方人员找到了当地的部落长老,他们爽快地答应只给中国车队放行。巴基斯坦朋友对我说,只要是中国人,在喀喇昆仑公路上就不会遇到任何阻拦。
      
    山中88座坟茔
      
    车出了北部城镇吉尔吉特,在路边很快就会看到一个标志牌,上面写着“中国人的墓地”。顺着标志向里走不远,就到了一个小型陵园。这是为修筑公路而牺牲的88位中国同志的墓地,也是每一个走在喀喇昆仑公路上的中国人都会去祭拜的地方。
      陵园面积不大,处在一片开阔地带之中,四周用围墙圈了起来。陵园种满了树,树叶遮挡了阳光,使陵园显得宁静肃穆。陵园的中间,矗立着白色纪念碑,红色的碑文写着:“中国援助巴基斯坦建设公路光荣牺牲同志之墓”,建碑日期为1978年6月。纪念碑的四周,开满了黄色的花朵,在10月阳光的照耀下显得分外鲜艳。
      纪念碑的后面,是88位牺牲在他乡的中国同志的墓地,每一个墓碑上都写着他们的名字。碑群中间靠左第一个是武治业同志的墓碑。他是在一次塌方中为保护巴基斯坦朋友而献身的,也是牺牲的人员中级别最高的中国人。据说,直到现在还有很多当地的巴基斯坦人把中国牺牲者墓碑的照片挂在家中,以纪念那些长眠在他们国土上的中国朋友。
      世外桃源洪扎府
      沿公路继续北上,就进入了洪扎地区,那是著名的风景区。洪扎地区目前仍保留着王公制。洪扎王常常是夏季住在该地区,冬天住在伊斯兰堡。在伊斯兰堡的街头,常可以看到车牌为HOUZA1的大吉普,那就是洪扎王的坐骑。据记载,洪扎王家族统治洪扎地区的历史已有960年。洪扎王的王宫设在卡里玛巴德镇,共有新旧两处,旧的王宫构架简单,但背靠雪山,地处洪扎最高处,显得气势磅礴,而新王宫则没什么特色。
      当地人称,洪扎地区目前有7000左右的居民,但没有警察、军队和政府机构,也没有交税一说。当地人依靠农业、商贸活动为生,旅游业也曾是当地人的一项主要收入,但自去年反恐战争开始后,很少有人再到这里旅游,使当地的旅游收入一落千丈。当地一个饭店的经理对我说,以往在这个季节,饭店的日平均收入可以达到10万卢比,而现在也就几千卢比。
      世界有名的高寿区
      我们住的饭店属于洪扎王。大堂的经理助理是一个30岁的小伙子,说一口流利的英语。交谈中他告诉我,他原来是伊斯兰堡一家旅行社的导游,后来为了逃避不幸福的婚姻,跑到了洪扎,并谋得了现在的工作。他说,尽管他已是两个孩子的父亲,但对父母包办的婚姻并不满意,在伊斯兰堡的生活让他越来越感到“痛苦”,于是索性跑到世外桃源来“消磨光阴”。
      在我们住的那段时间里,因为没有太多的客人,这位经理助理每天在大堂里闲逛,或者在沙发上跷着二郎腿看着窗外的雪山。我问他今后打算怎么办,他说他从来没有想过,尤其在这里,更不需要去想。这种介于逍遥与放任之间的情绪不是这位逃婚者的专利。在卡里玛巴德的小街道上,外来人随时都会感到当地人轻松自在的情绪。他们或在街边,或在小店里悠闲地打量着我们这些行色匆匆的过客。据介绍,洪扎地区是世界有名的高寿地区,百岁以上的老人为数众多,很多人甚至连自己活了多大岁数都忘记了。当地人长寿的秘诀是简单的生活方式和朴素的食物,也许还有他们对宁静的另外一种体会吧。
      苏斯特边境检查站
      小镇苏斯特已经离红其拉甫山口不远了。这里设有巴方的边境检查站,中巴两国间进出的人员和货物都要在这里接受检查。苏斯特的边检长官穆罕默德工作多年,他只有24名手下,由于中巴两国兄弟般的情谊,检查站很少有意外事件发生,这些人已经完全能够应付任何事情。穆罕默德称,他是个严格的把关人员。在阿富汗反恐战争打响后,他和他的手下严格执行上级命令,不论那些阿富汗人的过境手续多么齐全,也没有一个人能通过苏斯特边检站进入中国。穆罕默德对中国也很熟悉,他自称曾被中方邀请,商讨两国边境管理的一些问题。他对一些中国边贸公司的人员和生意人更是相当了解,甚至到了可以称兄道弟的程度。应该说,对生意人来说,穆罕默德手中掌握着一定的“生杀大权”。
      一个人的哨卡
      过了苏斯特,往来的车辆几乎就没有了。从苏斯特到红其拉甫山口,还要过上几道岗,但既然苏斯特边检都放行,这些小岗哨也绝对不加阻拦。从伊斯兰堡开车出来后,既没人查我们的护照,也没人查我们的车辆,我们的车就这样一直开到了红其拉甫。
      对红其拉甫山口海拔高度很难找到一致的说法。大多数的海拔高度记载在4602米到4877米之间,而在山口界碑上记载的高度则为16000英尺(约合4877米)。红其拉甫据说是世界上最高的铺设了行驶道路的山口。山口的风冷而疾,我们只好穿上了带来的棉袄御寒。
      巴方在红其拉甫山口只设一个哨兵。他只有一间小房,但可以在旁边一个搭建的帐篷里煮茶。哨兵也是中国人的老朋友,见到我们来,立刻脱掉外罩,拿出自己的相机,穿着制服和我们合影。照完相,还不忘要上一卷胶卷,以备将来用。他还略带炫耀地从自己怀里掏出一瓶中国产的白酒,说可以用它来抵御山口的寒冷。
      在这个哨卡的对面,就是中国的哨卡。虽然看不到我们前哨班的士兵,但可以看到鲜艳的五星红旗就飘扬在离我们约500米的地方。在两国界碑处,还有一块醒目的交通标识,上面用中文写着“请右侧行驶!”这条右侧行驶的道路,就是通向我的祖国的道路。


    国际班车每天从巴方的吉尔吉特和中方新疆维吾尔自治区的喀什对开一趟,遇到人多的时候会适当加开车次。

    * travelling up the karakoram highway, you can go by local transport or you can rent a vehicle from gilgit (or islambad, i would guess). i don't have any info on rental, but i don know that pakistani vehicles (NATCO company), can only go to tashgurgan - from there you have to take a chinese bus or rent a car from there. i am sure there are plenty of travel agencies in islambad that can give you this info - all i know is that the local transport is available. at the border (SUST) the NATCO vehicles go with 6 people in them - this is the minimum they need to send a vehicle. hope this helps, cheers...

    oh. the islamabad/ giglit flight is very difficult to get seats on (i would think maybe september weather might be better or worse due to rain or lack of rain). try when you arrive to islamabad, but leave time to take the exhuasting 15-18 hour bus. the road is really funky, though

    * 3.

    i would say a good idea.

    The sceneray along KKH is beautifull. Hunza valley is simply breathtaking. I was thier myself abt 3 years ago and fell in love with the place. allow me to suggest a slight change. On KKH after reaching Chilas rather than going further down on KKh try going to Lake Saif-ul-malook. you will love the place. The Kaghan/Naran valley this way is very very nice.




    * The flights from islamabad to GilGit is often cancelled because its very difficult terrains. monutains are very high and place for runway is limited and weather in that area is very unpredictable. But if weather is good than its the best way to go. A local car rental from pakistan that would allow you to drop car in Kashgar might be a bit difficult.But u can try your luck . I am not sure about finding people who would go all the way would be very easy task either. Most probable place for this to happen would be in Gilgit.
    My best bet would be airline, and after that taking a bus or hiring a jeep+driver.

    As pangea said KKH is funky road. If you have not driven a car in high mountains(trust me they are high) on a single road, it will be a quite a challange in itself to drive on that road. I dont know how they drive in HK, but in pakistan its like england or ireland, on the "wrong" side of road 眨眼.

    Enjoy your trip

    Bye.

    *
    Lonely Planet Images
    Karakoram Highway, Pakistan to China
    04/08/2003 01:32 PM - Lonely Planet

    Between the Central Asian desert and the plains of Pakistan is a geographical vortex rich in history, natural beauty and cultural diversity. It's also a damned bumpy ride. The great Karakoram Highway - fully opened in 1986 - spans the 'collision zone' between the Asian and Indian continents, setting a winding route in a place where China, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India come within 250km (133mi) of each other.

    destination
    Pakistan
    where
    From Kashgar, Western China to Islamabad, Pakistan
    how
    Take a plane from Russia or Central Asia to Urumqi in China then fly to Kashgar
    tip
    Support the local food traders, but have a supply of Mars Bars just in case
    link
    Danish Masters student Erik Futtrup grabbed his Lonely Planet guide and headed for the Karakoram Highway


    The Karakoram Highway follows a network of ancient trade routes linking the Silk Road oasis of Kashgar in western China with the Pakistani capital, Islamabad. Along the way it crosses the Khunjerab Pass (4800m, 15,750ft), otherwise known as the 'Valley of Blood' - a reference to local bandits who took advantage of the terrain to plunder caravans and slaughter merchants. More blood was spilt during the 20 years it took to push, level and blast the present 1300km (800mi) highway through the mountains: over 400 road-builders died, and it doesn't take more than a few hours in this hostile terrain to figure out why.

    The glaciers and peaks are mind-bending, but designated drivers miss most of the spectacle, too worried about the hairpin bend, the oncoming maniac, the narrow, crumbling road and the sheer drop. It's possible to navigate the highway by car, bus or - if you've got thighs of steel - bicycle. Though the roads are often treacherous, this part of Central Asia is among Asia's safest destinations.

    Despite half a dozen languages, the region crossed by the highway has an identity all its own, defined by religion (predominately Muslim), trade, a demanding environment and a sense of alienation and isolation from greater China or Pakistan. In some of the rapidly emerging tourist towns such as Gilgit, travellers will encounter the same overpriced scams as anywhere in the world. But on the whole, the region boasts great value and unfeigned friendliness from the locals.

    While the road itself offers a visual spectacle rivalled by few places in the world, the real treasures are to be found village-hopping off the main drag. The geographical isolation of the villages has created a huge wealth of diverse cultural practices, clothing and crafts. The locals are unremittingly friendly - more so if you have postcards, tea, salt or sugar to trade.

    Highlights of the road itself include the highway-nudging glaciers between Passu and Gulmit, the millennia-spanning excavations at Taxila, near Islamabad, and the centrepiece of the Karakoram Highway, the Hunza Valley's majestic snowy peaks. Theoretically the whole trip could take 48 hours. With breaks, breakages, detours, road blockages, disputed territory and the friendliness of villagers along the way, most journeys take about three weeks

    Karakoram Highway (LP)


    Karakoram Highway, Pakistan to China
    Between the Central Asian desert and the plains of Pakistan is a geographical vortex rich in history, natural beauty and cultural diversity. It's also a damned bumpy ride. The great Karakoram Highway - fully opened in 1986 - spans the 'collision zone' between the Asian and Indian continents, setting a winding route in a place where China, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India come within 250km (133mi) of each other.

    The Karakoram Highway follows a network of ancient trade routes linking the Silk Road oasis of Kashgar in western China with the Pakistani capital, Islamabad. Along the way it crosses the Khunjerab Pass (4800m, 15,750ft), otherwise known as the 'Valley of Blood' - a reference to local bandits who took advantage of the terrain to plunder caravans and slaughter merchants. More blood was spilt during the 20 years it took to push, level and blast the present 1300km (800mi) highway through the mountains: over 400 road-builders died, and it doesn't take more than a few hours in this hostile terrain to figure out why.

    The glaciers and peaks are mind-bending, but designated drivers miss most of the spectacle, too worried about the hairpin bend, the oncoming maniac, the narrow, crumbling road and the sheer drop. It's possible to navigate the highway by car, bus or - if you've got thighs of steel - bicycle. Though the roads are often treacherous, this part of Central Asia is among Asia's safest destinations.

    Despite half a dozen languages, the region crossed by the highway has an identity all its own, defined by religion (predominately Muslim), trade, a demanding environment and a sense of alienation and isolation from greater China or Pakistan. In some of the rapidly emerging tourist towns such as Gilgit, travellers will encounter the same overpriced scams as anywhere in the world. But on the whole, the region boasts great value and unfeigned friendliness from the locals.

    While the road itself offers a visual spectacle rivalled by few places in the world, the real treasures are to be found village-hopping off the main drag. The geographical isolation of the villages has created a huge wealth of diverse cultural practices, clothing and crafts. The locals are unremittingly friendly - more so if you have postcards, tea, salt or sugar to trade.

    Highlights of the road itself include the highway-nudging glaciers between Passu and Gulmit, the millennia-spanning excavations at Taxila, near Islamabad, and the centrepiece of the Karakoram Highway, the Hunza Valley's majestic snowy peaks. Theoretically the whole trip could take 48 hours. With breaks, breakages, detours, road blockages, disputed territory and the friendliness of villagers along the way, most journeys take about three weeks.


    KKH Map

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  • hi i am iqbal ali from passu Gojal hunza

    me fine and how about you were u now a days

    回复hi说:
    Hi, there, it's wonderful to hear form you. How are you doing? How is your family? I always thinking of those days I was travling alone KKH and those nice people I met.
    I am in Canada now and I am afraid that I would go back Passu shortly even I dreamed to.
    Thanks a lot for your message. Please forward my best wish to everybody I knew and to everybody they knew me.
    2006-11-29 03:41:30
  • hi howe arw
    回复iqbal说:
    Hi, there, how are you doing? I miss Hunza so much that I always mention it to my Canadian colleagues.

    How is everything there?
    2006-10-31 11:39:53